Mastering Tajweed Rules: Perfect Your Quran Recitation

Tajweed, derived from the Arabic root ‘J-W-D’, essentially means to beautify or improve. When it comes to the Quran, Tajweed refers to the rules that govern how the words of the Quran should be pronounced during recitation. These Tajweed rules ensure that each letter of the Quran is pronounced with its proper characteristics and qualities.

History of Tajweed

Tajweed has ancient roots in Islamic history. As Islam expanded to regions with diverse languages, the rules of Tajweed were formally established by scholars to ensure consistency in Quran recitation and to prevent mispronunciations.

Importance of Tajweed rules

Importance Of Tajweed Rules

The primary importance of Tajweed lies in its preservation of the proper pronunciation of Quranic words. This ensures that the words are recited as they were revealed, maintaining their original meaning. Without Tajweed rules, there’s a risk of changing the meaning of the words due to mispronunciation.

The Ruling of Reading Quran with Tajweed

Reading the Quran with Tajweed isn’t just a good-to-have skill; for Muslims, it’s a religious obligation. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) emphasized upon mastering the Quran’s recitation. It’s believed that reciting with Tajweed ensures the message of the Quran is conveyed as intended.

Learning Tajweed Rules of the Quran Online

With the digital revolution, learning Tajweed has become easier and more accessible., a trusted Online Quran Academy offers comprehensive Online Quran Courses with video lessons, interactive sessions, and feedback mechanisms. This has allowed Muslims worldwide, regardless of their location, to learn and master Tajweed.

Basic rules of Tajweed

Nasal Sounds (Ghunnah)

Ghunnah is a nasal sound that emerges when the sound of the letter ‘Nūn’ (ن) or ‘Mīm’ (م) is concealed. It lasts for about two beats, and it is most notable in the rules of Ikhfa’ and Idgham.

Nasal Sounds (Ghunnah)

Unlocking the Beauty of Ghunnah in Quranic Recitation

Qalqalah (Echo Letters)

Qalqalah pertains to the echoing sound when certain letters are pronounced. These letters are

ق, ط, ب, ج, د

When any of these letters have a sukoon (cessation) or appear at the end of a word without a vowel, they are given a slight echoing sound.

Letters of Qalqalah The Best Resounding Echo of Arabic Phonetics


Harakat are the short vowel marks in the Arabic script:

Fatha (Zabr)

A diagonal line placed above a letter, making the ‘a’ sound as in ‘apple’.

Kasra (Zair)

A line placed below a letter, producing an ‘i’ sound as in ‘sit’.

Dhamma (Pesh)

A tiny “w” shape placed above a letter, making the ‘u’ sound as in ‘bull’.

Unlocking the Significance of ‘Harakat’ in Arabic: A Comprehensive Guide

Throat Letters or Huruf Halqi

Six letters originate from different parts of the throat:

Throat Letters (Haruf-E-Halqi)
From the lowest part of the throat:
أ (Hamza) and ح (Ha’)
From the middle part of the throat:
ع (‘Ayn) and هـ (Haa)
From the topmost part of the throat:
خ (Khaa) and غ (Ghain)

A Deep Dive into the Best throat letters in Arabic

Quran tajweed rule for Full Mouth Letters

These are the letters that, when pronounced, give a fuller sound by expanding the mouth. Tajweed rules for full mouth letters are commonly referred to as the letters of “Istilā’ah”. They are: خ, ق, غ, ك (Khaa, Qaf, Ghain, Kaf).

خ, ق, غ, ك (Khaa, Qaf, Ghain, Kaf)

Understanding Tajweed Rules for Full Mouth Letters

Tajweed Rules for Madd

Madd refers to the elongation of certain vowels. The length of the elongation depends on the type of Madd:

Two Beat Madd (Natural Madd)This is the natural elongation of the vowels without any external factors, lasting for two beats. It happens when a letter has a Fatha, Kasra, or Dhamma followed by the letter ‘Alif’, ‘Ya’, or ‘Waw’ respectively.

  • Flexible Madd (Two, Four, or Six)

    The duration varies based on what follows the Madd letter. It can be two, four, or six beats. It occurs when a Hamza follows a Madd letter.

  • Four Beat Madd (Connected Madd)

    This elongation lasts for four beats. It happens when a Madd letter is at the end of a word, and the next word starts with a Hamza.

  • Six Beat Madd (Detached Madd)

    Lasting for six beats, it occurs when a word ends with a Madd letter and is followed by a pause.

These Tajweed rules ensure that the Quran is recited in the manner it was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), helping to maintain the beauty and rhythm of its verses while preserving its meaning.

Types of Maad Tajweed: Key to Harmonious Quranic Recitation

Noon Sakinah & Tanween

Noon Sakinah refers to the letter “Noon” (ن) that has a Sukoon (cessation) on it, meaning a vowel does not follow it. Tanween is the double vowel sound (akin to “an”, “in”, “un”) at the end of certain words. Essentially, the sound of Tanween is similar to Noon Sakinah.

By Arabic101

Essential Rules of Noon Saakin and Tanween for Beautiful Quran Recitation

Tajweed Rules of Noon Sakinah and Tanween

  • Idhaar (to make clear)
    • When a Noon Sakinah or Tanween is followed by any of the six throat letters the sound of the Noon is made clear and distinct, without any nasalization.

(أ, هـ, ع, ح, غ, خ)

In other words, if any of these letters come after a “noon sakinah” or “tanween,” the ‘nnn’ sound should be articulated plainly.

  • Idghaam (to merge)
    • If Noon Sakinah or Tanween is followed by the letters, the Noon is merged into the next letter. There are two types of Idghaam: with Ghunnah (nasalization) and without Ghunnah.

(ي, ر, م, ل, و, ن)

By Arabic101

With Ghunnah:
If any of these letters come after a “noon sakinah” or “tanween,” then you don’t pronounce the “noon” with ghunnah. Instead, the ghunnah is merged with the following letter.

[ي ن م و]
Idgham With Ghunna
Idgham To Merge Examples

So whoever does an atom’s weight of good will see it.
(Surah Al-Zalzalah, 99:7)

[ ل, ر ]

Without Ghunnah:
When either of the letters [ل ر] comes after a “noon sakinah” or “tanween,” you should skip the “noon” sound and pronounce the subsequent letter without the nasal “ghunnah” sound.

Idgham Without Ghunna
Idgham Without Ghunna Example
  • Iqlaab (to convert)
    • When ب (Ba) comes after a Noon Sakinah or Tanween, the sound of the Noon changes to a Meem sound. There is also a nasal sound or Ghunnah present.

ب (Ba)

Iqlaab Example
It is they who are ˹truly˺ guided by their Lord, and it is they who will be successful.
(Surah Al-Baqarah, 2:5)

Ikhfaa (Concealment)

Ikhfaa refers to a rule applied to the following letters. When any of these letters comes after a “noon sakinah” or “tanween,” you should conceal or “hide” the sound of the “noon” but still apply the nasal “ghunnah” sound. The intensity of the ghunnah varies based on the specific following letter. Adjust your lips and mouth as though you’re preparing to pronounce the subsequent letter after the “noon sakinah” or “tanween.

[ت ث ج د ذ س ش ص ض ط ظ ف ق ك]
Ikhfa To Hide
Arabic Alphabets
Ikhfaa letters highlighted in red. Remaining letters apply to Idhar, Idgham, and Iqlaab.

Ikhfa Tajweed Rules: A Guide to Perfecting Pronunciation in Quranic Recitation

Tajweed Rules of Meem Sakinah

Meem Sakinah refers to the letter “Meem” (م) that has a Sukoon.
Ikhfaa Shafawi

When a Meem Sakinah is followed by ب (Ba), the sound of the Meem is concealed and nasalized.

Ikhfaa Shafawy

Surely their Lord is All-Aware of them on that Day.
(Surah Al-Aadiyat 100:11)

Idghaam Shafawi
Idghaam Shafawi

When another Meem follows a Meem Sakinah, the two Meem sounds merge into one with a clear nasal Ghunnah.

Who has fed them against hunger and made them secure against fear.
(Surah Quraysh 106:4)

Izhaar Shafawy

If any letter other than Meem or Ba follows the Meem Sakinah, its sound is made clear without any nasalization.

أَلَمْ تَرَ = Alam-Tara

For example, in “أَلَمْ تَرَ,” which is read as “Alam tara,” the “meem” sound in “Alam” is articulated clearly and separately from the next letter, “ta.”

Understanding and applying these rules ensures that the recitation of the Quran is melodious and precise, and as it was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad, peace is upon him.

Learn How to Pronounce Meem Saakinah Correctly Today

Qalqalah (Echoing Sound)

The term “Qalqalah” in Tajweed translates to ‘echoing’. This rule instructs the reader to produce a slight bounce or echo sound when pronouncing specific letters. The goal is to distinguish between letters with similar end sounds, especially when pausing on them (like a letter with sukoon, at the end of an ayah, or during a breath pause). This echoing effect also provides a rhythmic flow to the recitation.
The letters that require Qalqalah are:
[ ق ط ب ج د ]
Three situations call for careful attention when applying the Qalqalah:

  • Middle of a Word: When Qalqalah occurs within a word, it should be a brief echo, followed by a seamless transition to the next letter. This resembles the doubling effect of a shaddah but without extending the vowel noticeably.

Example: تَجْرِي = “tajeree”

  • End of a Word (when pausing): If you’re pausing on a word that ends with a Qalqalah letter, the echo should be slightly more emphasized.

Example: اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ = “Allahu samadda”

  • 3. Word with Shaddah (when pausing): If pausing on a word that has a Qalqalah letter with a shaddah, a more distinct and jerking echo sound should be produced.

Example: لَهَبٍ وَتَبَّ = “lahabiuuu wa tabbbaa”

Letters of Qalqalah The Best Resounding Echo of Arabic Phonetics

Al-Madd (Elongation)

The term “Al-Madd” in Tajweed refers to the elongation or stretching of certain letters longer than their regular pronunciation. The extent of this elongation varies based on the context and the specific symbol associated with the letter. Typically, the duration of the Madd is quantified by the number of “harakat” or beats.

While each specific Madd rule has its distinct name, for simplicity’s sake, they can be grouped by their respective beat lengths. Detailed names for each of these rules can be found in specialized Tajweed resources. Types of Madd are guidelines on how to stretch certain sounds in Arabic, helping improve Quranic reading.
The letters that require Madd are:
[ ا و ى ]
When you encounter these letters with the appropriate signs in the Quran, they should be elongated according to the specific Madd rule applicable.

Two Beat Madd (Elongation)

In the Tajweed rules, when you encounter one of the Madd letters (which are [ ا و ى ]), it’s followed by another letter (that is not a hamza or a letter with sukoon). The Madd letter should be elongated or stretched for a duration of two beats. This form of elongation is sometimes known as the natural Madd. Even if a hamza precedes a Madd letter, the elongation remains at two beats. Examples:
دِينُكُمْ = “dee nukum”
يَا = “yaa”
عَابِدُونَ = “A’aa be doona”
Additionally, when you pause at a word that concludes with a “tanween fatha,” it’s recommended to transform the tanween into an “alif Madd,” which is also elongated for two beats.
For instance, أَفْوَاجًا = “Aff waa jaa”

Flexible Madd (Elongation of Two, Four, or Six Beats)

In specific instances, a Madd letter may require a longer elongation of either four or five beats. This occurs when:
1. The Madd letter is positioned within a word and is succeeded by a “hamza.”
2. The Madd letter concludes a word, and the subsequent word initiates with a “hamza.”
إِذَا جَاءَ
“idhaa jaaaa a”

Note: Even though both “dha” and “ja” have an alif Madd, the “ja” is elongated further due to the succeeding hamza.

Six Beat Madd (Elongation of Six Beats)

وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ
“wa laddaaaaaalleeen”
Certain conditions demand the Madd letter to be elongated for a total of six beats:
1. If a letter possessing a “shaddah” (a doubling sign) follows the Madd letter.
2. If a letter with a “sukoon” (indicating the absence of a vowel) succeeds the Madd letter.

Tajweed Lessons For Beginners: A Comprehensive Guide

Noon & Meem Mushaddad

Mushaddad refers to a letter that has a Shaddah (شدة) on it. Shaddah denotes emphasis or doubling of a letter.

Noon Mushaddad:
When there’s a Shaddah on the Noon (نّ), it means the Noon sound is doubled, and there’s a noticeable nasalization or Ghunnah.
Meem Mushaddad
Similar to Noon Mushaddad, a Meem with a Shaddah (مّ) is doubled with a clear nasal Ghunnah.

Tajweed Symbols in Quran: A Comprehensive Guide

Laam Shamsyiah & Qamariyah

These rules revolve around the pronunciation of the letter Laam in “ال” (Alif Laam), which is equivalent to “the” in English.

Laam Shamsyiah (Solar Laam)

Laam Shamsyiah (Solar Laam)

If “ال” is followed by one of the 14 “sun letters” , the Laam sound merges or is assimilated into the next letter, making it silent.

Laam Qamariyah (Lunar Laam)

If “ال” is followed by one of the other 14 “moon letters”, the Laam is pronounced clearly.
Laam Qamariyah (Lunar Laam)

Rules for Reading the Quran: Your Journey to Spiritual Enlightenment

Heavy and Light Letters

In Tajweed, there are certain letters that are pronounced with fullness or heaviness (Tafkheem), while others are pronounced lightly (Tarqeq).

Heavy Letters:
These include خ, ص, ض, ط, غ, ق. They are articulated with a rounded mouth, giving a heavier sound.
Light Letters:
All other letters not mentioned above are light and are articulated with a more relaxed or spread mouth.

Tafkheem and Tarqeq

Benefits of Learning Quran Tajweed Rules

Beyond the obligation, mastering the Tajweed rules of the Quran has several benefits:


Deeper ConnectionIt allows the reciter to connect deeply with the Quran, understanding its rhythm and beauty.


Accurate ConveyanceEnsures the message of the Quran is conveyed accurately.


Spiritual UpliftmentThe musical and accurate recitation can be spiritually uplifting.

A Deep Dive into the Best throat letters in Arabic

The Rule for the Word “ALLAH”

When pronouncing the name “Allah”, the Laam is considered:
When it is in the middle of a sentence or comes after a Fatha (Zabr) or Dhamma (Pesh).
When it starts a sentence or comes after a Kasra (Zair).

Allah U

Unlocking the Significance of ‘Harakat’ in Arabic: A Comprehensive Guide


Tajweed is not merely a set of rules but an art of beautifying the recitation of the Quran. The outlined rules help ensure that the words of Allah are recited with precision and respect; as they were revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).

Mastery of these rules not only enriches one’s recitation but also enhances one’s connection and understanding of the divine words. For Muslims, reciting the Quran with Tajweed is a means to earn rewards and get closer to their Creator.

Join now the Best Quran Tajweed Course Online at Qari.Live and begin your Online Quran Classes today.

FAQ’s (Frequently Ask Questions)

What are some key components of the rules of tajweed for beginners?

Tajweed rules cover aspects like nasal sounds (Ghunnah), echo letters (Qalqalah), short vowels (Harakat), throat letters, full mouth letters, and elongation (Madd).

How can we learn Tajweed rules online?

There are numerous online platforms like offering comprehensive Tajweed courses with video lessons, interactive sessions, and feedback mechanisms, making it accessible to Muslims worldwide.

What are the benefits of mastering Tajweed rules?

Mastering Tajweed deepens one’s connection with the Quran, ensures accurate conveyance of its message, and provides spiritual upliftment through melodious recitation.

Is reading the Quran with Tajweed a religious obligation?

Yes, reading the Quran with Tajweed is considered a religious obligation in Islam, as it helps convey the Quranic message as intended by the Prophet Muhammad.

Why are Tajweed rules important?

Tajweed rules are crucial because they preserve the correct pronunciation of Quranic words, ensuring that the original meaning is maintained and preventing mispronunciations.

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